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How to calculate Interobserver agreement

Learn how to calculate scored-interval, unscored-interval, and interval-by-interval Interobserver agreement IOA

Using the following data:

Calculate scored-interval IOA

2/7 * 100 = 28.57%

  1.  Mark all the intervals where at least 1 person scored the occurrence of the behavior.
  2.  Using only the intervals where at least 1 person scored the occurrence of the behavior divide the agreements of both observers by the total number of trials in which at least 1 person scored the occurrence of the behavior and multiply by 100.

Calculate unscored-interval IOA

3/8 * 100 = 37.5%

  1.  Mark all the intervals where at least 1 person scored the nonoccurrence of the behavior.
  2. Using only the intervals where at least 1 person scored the nonoccurrence of the behavior divide the agreements of both observers by the total number of trials in which at least 1 person scored the nonoccurrence of the behavior and multiply by 100

Calculate interval-by-interval IOA

5/10 * 100 = 50%

  1.  Mark all the intervals where both observers agree with each other
  2. Divide agreements by the total number of intervals and multiply by 100.

What is Applied Behavior Analysis?

Applied Behavior Analysis is the science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement in behavior.  By John O. Cooper, Timothy E. Heron, William L. Heward.  Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd Edition)

The principles of Applied Behavior Analysis can be seen at work in a wide variety of applications.  Applied Behavior Analysis isn’t just for people with Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorders. For example, ABA can be used to help a person to eat healthier, and to exercise more.  ABA can be used to teach toilet training and language to a typically developing toddler or chemistry and algebra to a high school student. ABA can also be used to get people to recycle and to conserve household energy use.  ABA programs have been successful in teaching new skills to individuals with Autism, brain injuries, Down syndrome, and intellectual disabilities to name a few. ABA may also used to decrease behaviors such as aggression and self injurious behaviors and to quit smoking and stop nail biting.  

The seven dimensions of ABA are: applied (socially significant behaviors), behavioral (precise measurement of the behavior) , analytic (experimental control), technological (written description of procedures), conceptually systematic (behavior change interventions are derived from basic principles of behavior), effective (improves behavior sufficiently to produce practical results for the client), and generality (produces behavior change that lasts over time.)  

ABA Cards

Studying for the BCBA exam is really hard. Make it fun with bright colorful flashcards that break down terms making them easier to remember.

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Increasing a behavior and decreasing a behavior data sheet

Use this data sheet when you want to increase a behavior at the same time that you want to decrease a behavior.  Doing so on the same data sheet allows you to easily see if your student is making progress.  For example suppose a student is calling out in class and you would like them to raise their hand instead of calling out.  If you only track calling out you will not know if they made any progress with raising their hand.  You can download this data sheet here.

Transitivity

ABA Diagram of Transitivity

An untrained stimulus-stimulus relation that emerges as a product of training two other stimulus-stimulus relations.   Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd Edition)

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Symmetry

Symmetry if A = B then B = A.  The learner is taught when presented with the picture grapes (sample stimulus A) to select the written word grapes (sample stimulus B).  When presented with the written word grapes (sample stimulus B), without additional training or reinforcement, the learner selects the picture of grapes (sample stimulus A).  Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd Edition)

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Reflexivity

Reflexivity is also known as generalized identity matching.  In the above example if you are able to select a picture of a bike as the missing picture you would be demonstrating reflexivity if you also had no prior matching training or reinforcement for doing so.  Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd Edition)

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Terminal Behavior

Terminal Behavior: The end product of shaping.   Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd Edition)

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Negative Reinforcer

Negative Reinforcer: A stimulus whose termination (or reduction in intensity) functions as a reinforcement. Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd Edition)

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Measurement Bias

Measurement Bias:  Nonrandom measurement error; a form of inaccurate measurement in which the data consistently overestimate or underestimate the true value of an event.  Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd Edition)

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